1674-87. STRUGGLE FOR REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT. Andros confirmed the Duke's Laws, reappointed the previously ousted English officials, confirmed previous land grants, and secured submission of towns on eastern Long Island which had claimed to be under Connecticut's jurisdiction. Despite popular demands for an assembly (as early as 1670), the Duke (Jan. 1676) indicated his opposition on the ground that such a body would "prove destructive... to the peace of the government." By the Bolting Act" (1678) New York City was given a monopoly on flour milling for export and its position was affirmed by Andros as the sole port of entry. Although exonerated of charges of illegal trading with the Dutch and corruption in office, Andros was supplanted by Col Thomas Dongan (1634-1715), an Irish Catholic who arrived in New York, 28 Aug. 1683. Pursuant to instructions from the Duke he called a general assembly of delegates from each of the three ridings of Yorkshire and from New York and Harlem, Albany, Schenectady, Esopus, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and Pemaquid (eastern Maine), which proceeded to enact the Charter of Liberties (30 Oct 1683), largely the work of the speaker, Matthias Nicolls. The Charter, providing for a meeting at least once in 3 years of an assembly whose consent was necessary for the imposition of taxes, was approved by the Duke, but after his accession as James II (6 Feb. 1685) he disallowed the legislation of the assembly (29 May 1686) and expressly empowered the Royal Governor to exercise full legislative as well as executive power in conjunction with the council. The assembly was dissolved (Jan. 1687), never to meet again. Dongan granted municipal charters to New York City and Albany (1693), taking the latter out of the hands of the patroon. (The Encyclopedia of American History Edited by Richard B. Morris, professor of history, Columbia University, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1953, p.45-46. Emphasis added.)

(Note: Although the colonial assembly never reconvened under king James II, it did convene again in 1691 under the reign of William and Mary. The assembly reenacted the Charter of Liberties and Privileges in 1691 under a different header because it was now a royal province and not a proprietary colony. The colonial assembly proceeded to operate according to the terms of the charter without significant interruption until the revolution when the charter was modified to become the Constitution of the State of New York.- RAF)