1661-64. CONQUEST OF NEW NETHERLAND. The English regarded the Dutch settlement as blocking westward expansion and interfering with the enforcement of the Navigation Acts through clandestine trade in tobacco. An open clash of national trading interests resulted from the chartering (1660) of "The Company of Royal Adventurers to Africa," with a monopoly of the African slave trade (reincorporated as the African Co., 1663; lost its monopoly 1698). On 22 Mar. 1664 Charles II granted his brother, James, Duke of York, all of Maine between the Ste. Croix and Kennebec Rivers and from the coast to the St Lawrence, all islands between Cape Cod and the Narrows, and all land from the western boundary of Connecticut (Connecticut's claims west of the Connecticut River were recognized, 30 Nov. 1667) to the eastern shore of Delaware Bay, with power to govern, subject to the reservation that judicial appeals might be taken to the crown. On 2 Apr. the Duke appointed Col Richard Nicolls (1624-72) as chief of a commission to capture New Netherland and settle disputes in the New England colonies. A task force of 4 frigates reached New York Harbor (29 Aug), and on 7 Sept. Stuyvesant, lacking support from the inhabitants, capitulated to Nicolls. Under the liberal surrender terms the Dutch were granted liberty of conscience, property and inheritance rights, and direct trade with Holland for 6 months (extended briefly, 1667; but canceled 1668). Col. Georg Cartwright, another commissioner, took the surrender of Ft. Orange without incident (20. Sept.) and the British assumed the place of the Dutch as allies of the Five Nations of the Iroquois (24 Sept.). But Delaware did not yield until Sir Robert Carr had stormed Ft. Casimir (10 Oct.). (The Encyclopedia of American History Edited by Richard B. Morris, professor of history, Columbia University, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1953, p. 44-45)